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Improvising in Styles: A Workbook for Music Therapists, Educators, and Musicians

Author : Lee, Colin A. & Houde, Marc

Improvising in Styles: A Workbook for Music Therapists, Educators, and Musicians
ISBN : 9781891278587


Though improvisation is a therapeutic method that has been known and used in many settings, there are only a few published practical guides on how to learn to clinically improvise. This book aims to redress this gap by providing a comprehensive workbook specifically designed to give music therapists the tools needed to successfully improvise in their work. Each chapter focuses on a different style of music and begins with a discussion  of its historical and musicological context, and its relevance to music therapy. Then follows exercises for solo and duet practice that are built on each component of the style. Two accompanying CDs provide examples from the text that serve to demonstrate beginning ideas and how to formulate the exercises presented,  2010, Spiral-bound, 430 pages.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Permissions vii

Acknowledgments xi

Table of Contents xiii

Contributors xvii

Audio Excerpts xviii

Preface xx

 

PART ONE: INTRODUCTION

How to Practise 3

What Is Style? 4

Stylistic vs. Generic Improvisation 6

Aesthetic Music Therapy 6

Cultural Awareness 7

Who Can Use This Book 7

Recommended Musical Skills 8

How to Use This Book 8

Individual and Group Work 10

Design of the Book 11

Developing an Effective Practice Schedule 12

Solo Practice 12

Duet Practice 14

Commonly Asked Questions 15

Improvisation Practice Journal 17

Conclusion 18

PART TWO: CLASSICAL

Baroque Era 21

Baroque Music and Music Therapy 22

Exercises 23

Components 23

Harmonic Progressions 23

Suspensions 25

Melodic Development 28

Tonic Pedal 33

Diminished Chords 36

Walking Bass 38

Sequences 41

Counterpoint 43

Form 48

Passacaglia 48

Theme and Variations 51

Toccata 54

Chorale 57

Dance 59

Conclusion 62

Classical Period 63

Classical Music and Music Therapy 63

Exercises 64

Components

Harmony 65

Alberti Bass 66

Melody and Accompaniment 67

Scales and Arpeggios 68

Octaves 70

Modulation 71

Form 81

Sonata Form 81

Theme and Variations 93

Rondo Form 101

Secondary Dominants 110

Slow Movements 110

Conclusion 115

Romantic Era 117

Romantic Music and Music Therapy 117

Exercises 118

Chromatic Harmony 118

Form 124

Lieder (Song) 124

Downbeat 125

Bagatelle 132

Mazurka 135

Intermezzi and Rhapsodies 139

Opera 150

Puccini and Audrey 150

Conclusion 156

20th Century 159

20th Century Music and Music Therapy 160

Nationalism 161

Paul Nordoff: USA 161

Gerald Finzi: UK 171

Igor Stravinsky: Russia 174

Olivier Messiaen: France 176

Compositional Techniques 180

Debussy and Impressionism 180

The Whole-Tone Scale 186

Bitonality: Bartók 192

Atonality 197

Spirituality: Arvo Pärt 204

New Movements 208

Conclusion 208

 

PART THREE: POPULAR

Song 213

Popular Ballad and Music Therapy 214

Exercises 215

Chord Progression Warm-ups 216

Major Chord Progressions 218

Minor Chord Progressions 224

Creating Your Own Chord Progressions 228

Chord Progression Embellishments 230

Piano Accompaniments 236

Additional Accompaniment Embellishments 238

Voice and Lyrics 242

Song Form 246

Conclusion 249

Blues 251

Blues and Music Therapy 252

Exercises 253

Melody and Phrasing 253

Groove and Rhythm 257

Form and Harmony 260

Ornamental and Stylistic Devices 269

Additional Resources 273

Prepared Guitar 273

Using Single-Pitch Instruments (Reed Horns, Whistles, Tone Chimes) 274

The Blues Form in the Keys of D and A 275

Conclusion 275

Jazz 277

Jazz and Music Therapy 279

Exercises 280

Swing Using a Cymbal and Snare 281

Swing Using a Walking Bass Line 283

Harmony 287

Comping on Chord Progressions 297

Form 307

Conclusion 312

PART FOUR: WORLD

India: Ragas 31

Ragas and Music Therapy 316

Exercises

Drones 317

Thaats 319

Ornamentation 324

Form 328

Tala 335

Conclusion 339

Korea: Folk Music 341

Korean Music and Music Therapy 342

Exercises

Melody 343

Rhythm 344

Scales 345

Folk Songs 345

Arirang 345

Saeya, Saeya, Pa-rang Saeya 349

Han Oback-Nyoun 350

Onghaeya 353

Conclusion 356

Argentina: Nuevo Tango 357

Nuevo Tango and Music Therapy 359

Exercises 360

Tango Bass Patterns 360

Motivic Cells 364

Syncopated Rhythm 366

Chromaticism 369

Chord Progressions and Sequences 374

Modal Clusters 379

Integrating the Style 381

Conclusion 384

PART FIVE: AUTHENTICITY

Finding Your Own Voice 387

Exercises

Combining Styles 388

Tone Colouring 389

The Architectural Tonic 392

Creating Small Melodic Themes/Cells 393

Creating Unique Scales 396

Reharmonising Songs 396

Thinking Like an Orchestra 398

Image Improvisation 399

Building a Music-Centered Library of Resources 400

Conclusion 402

Appendices 405

A. Listening Guide 405

B. Instrumental Combinations 409

C. Jazz Scales and Modes 411

D. Scale Reference 413

Bibliography 419

Author and Composer Index 423

Subject Index