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A Transpersonal Model of Music Therapy: Deepening Practice

Author : Barbara J. Crowe

A Transpersonal Model of Music Therapy: Deepening Practice
ISBN : 9781945411267
E-ISBN : 9781945411274


An exploration of a transpersonal psychological model and its applicability to all aspects of music therapy practice. Transpersonal therapy encompasses extraordinary and transcendent experiences, modes of spirituality, and human development to states of wholeness and “super sanity.” The book presents basic principles and assumptions of this model and explores in depth the three elements of a transpersonal therapy practice — transpersonal context, content, and method. These elements are applied to music therapy in an effort to deepen practice. Topics covered include: developing the transpersonal music therapist through mindfulness training; music generated transcendent experiences; and special ethical considerations in transpersonal work. Existing music therapy practices are considered from a transpersonal perspective and applied to a wide spectrum of clients, including those with Alzheimer’s disease, developmental delay, and mental health condition (i.e., eating disorders, addictions, trauma victims). The book is a thorough introduction to the transpersonal model and music therapy practice within it, and adds to the skills and knowledge now required in the official documents of the Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT). Available in print and electronic versions.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................. vi

Contents of the Book................................................................................................................ ix

Chapter One    Introduction....................................................................................................…3

          Models Theory................................................................................................................. 3

          Overview  5

Chapter Two   The Transpersonal Psychology Model.............................................................. 9

          History of the Transpersonal Psychology Model............................................................ 10

          Transpersonal Psychology Theories.............................................................................. 12

          Dynamic-Dialectical Theory of Transpersonal Psychology............................................ 13

          Client’s Dynamic-Dialectical Therapy Process............................................................... 16

                    Regression in service of transformation............................................................... 17

                    Regeneration into Spirit....................................................................................... 19

The Integrated Self............................................................................................................. 20

          Assumptions of the Transpersonal Model...................................................................... 21

                    Transcendent experiences................................................................................... 22

          Three Dimensions of Transpersonal Therapy................................................................ 22

 

Chapter Three Transpersonal Context – The Transpersonal Way of Being............................  23

          Shifting Motivation.......................................................................................................... 23

          Transformation of Emotions............................................................................................ 24

                    Fear/anxiety.......................................................................................................... 25

                    Anger/irritation...................................................................................................... 26

                    Control.................................................................................................................. 26

          Advanced Training in Ethics........................................................................................... 27

                    Ethical Thinking.................................................................................................... 27

                    Special Ethical Concerns..................................................................................... 28

                              Vulnerabilities to Unethical Behavior.......................................................... 32

                              Competence............................................................................................... 34

          Mindfulness.................................................................................................................... 35

                    Mindfulness Training............................................................................................ 35

                              Self-regulate attention................................................................................ 36

                              Quieting the mind....................................................................................... 36

                              Focusing in the present moment................................................................ 38

                              Contemplation/deep observation............................................................... 38

                              Benefits of mindfulness.............................................................................. 39

                    Cultivating Wisdom.............................................................................................. 39

                              Developing discernment............................................................................ 40

                              Trusting intuition........................................................................................ 40

                              Developing empathy and compassion...................................................... 41

 

Chapter Four  Transpersonal Content –Client Experiences................................................... 43

          The Transpersonal Experience..................................................................................... 44

                    The Transcendent State...................................................................................... 44

                    Altered state of consciousness (ASC)................................................................. 45

                    Altered sense of time........................................................................................... 45

                    Ineffable quality.................................................................................................... 45

                    Noetic quality........................................................................................................ 46

                    Intense, positive emotion..................................................................................... 46

                    Sense of “presence”............................................................................................. 46

                    Experiencing flow................................................................................................. 46

                    Appreciation for unity............................................................................................ 46

          Content of Transpersonal Therapy................................................................................. 46

                    Imaginal Realm.................................................................................................... 46

                              Images and imagery................................................................................... 48

                              Forms of transpersonal imagery..................................................................50

                              Symbols and metaphors............................................................................. 51

                    Symbolic Healing.................................................................................................. 52

                    Intense Emotion.................................................................................................... 52

                    Myths……............................................................................................................. 52

                    Ritual/Ceremony................................................................................................... 53

          Themes and Issues in Transpersonal Therapy............................................................... 54

                    Memories and subconscious material.................................................................. 54

Seeking and searching................................................................................................. 54

 

Chapter Five   Transpersonal Music Therapy Approaches and Techniques............................ 59

          Introduction..................................................................................................................... 59

          Music as a Transpersonal Healing Technique  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                    Music and transcendent experiences................................................................... .60

                    Musical elements as disrupting force................................................................. ...60

                              Drone tones................................................................................................. 61

                              Regularity in rhythm.................................................................................... 62

                              Complex rhythm.......................................................................................... 62

                              Melodic subtlety and contour....................................................................... 63

                              Harmony...................................................................................................... 63

                              Timbre......................................................................................................... 63

                              Ear-based auditory phenomena.................................................................. 64

                              Dynamics..................................................................................................... 65

                    Aesthetic response as a transpersonal event........................................................ 65

          Music and Deep Healing.................................................................................................. 66

          Transpersonal Music Therapy Techniques and Interventions.......................................... 68

          Clinical Musical Improvisation.......................................................................................... 68

                    Therapist’s Improvisation Techniques.................................................................... 68

                              Empathetic therapist improvisation.............................................................. 69

                              Nordoff-Robbins Creative Music Therapy (N-RCMT).................................. 70

                    Client Musical Improvisation.................................................................................. 70

                              Spontaneous client therapeutic musical improvisation................................ 70

          Music-Evoked Imagery..................................................................................................... 71

                    Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM)................................ ........71

                    1:1 Unguided Music Imagery................................................................................. 74

                    Group Music and Imagery..................................................................................... 75

                    Music and Creative Problem Solving.................................................................... 75

          Music with Other Art Expressions................................................................................... 76

                    Music and visual art.............................................................................................. 76

                    Storytelling and narrative...................................................................................... 77

                    Music to illustrate a story...................................................................................... 78

                    Improvised musical response to a story............................................................... 78

                    Stories based on music-generated image.......................................................... ..78

          Music Production as Narrative Expression.................................................................... 79

          Expressive Movement................................................................................................... 79

          Music and Relaxation.................................................................................................... 80

          Vocal Expression........................................................................................................... 81

                    Toning.................................................................................................................. 82

                    Chanting.............................................................................................................. 83

                    Singing................................................................................................................ 84

          Songwriting................................................................................................................... 86

          Receptive Listening...................................................................................................... 87

          Music Making as Ritual/Ceremony............................................................................... 88

          Direct Spiritual Experiences......................................................................................... 90

 

Chapter Six         Clinical Transpersonal Music Therapy..................................................... ...93

          Therapeutic Outcomes................................................................................................. 93

                    Calm Agitation/Restlessness............................................................................. 93

                    Aid in Transitions............................................................................................... 94

                    Elicit Behavioral Changes.................................................................................. 94

                    Mood Change.................................................................................................... 94

                    Strengthening Capacities.................................................................................. 94

  Opening to the Spiritual Dimension.............................................................................. 95

                    Clients Traditionally Served............................................................................... 95

                    Transpersonal Therapy Levels for Psychiatric Clients....................................... 95

                              Substance abuse and addiction............................................................... 97

                              Trauma/post traumatic stress disorder................................................... 101

                              Eating disorders..................................................................................... 103

                              Prisons................................................................................................... 104

                              Sexual offenders in treatment................................................................ 105

                              Medical hospitals/rehabilitation centers................................................. 106

                              Hospice/palliative care.......................................................................... 108

                              Individuals seeking wellbeing/wellness................................................. 109

          Non-traditional Clients for Transpersonal Music Therapy.......................................... 110

                    Developmental Delay....................................................................................... 110

                    Severe Brain Disorders.................................................................................... 114

 

Chapter Seven Transpersonal Music Therapy Practice....................................................... 117

          Assessment.................................................................................................................117

                    Considerations in Transpersonal Assessment............................................... ...119

                    Areas of Assessment........................................................................................ 121

                    Transpersonal Assessment Tools/Approaches................................................. 123

                    Components of Transpersonal Assessment................................................... ..128

                              Observation of client................................................................................128

                              Interview of Client/family members...................................................... ...128

                              Review of client records......................................................................... 128

                              Standardized assessment tests............................................................. 129

                              Therapist’s intuitive impressions............................................................ 129

                    Music Therapy Interventions as Assessment Tools......................................... 130

                              Use of songs.......................................................................................... 130

                              Improvising music...................................................................................130

                              Performance with instruments................................................................130

                              Music’s ability to generate images......................................................... 131

                    The Assessment Report...................................................................................131

          The Transpersonal Music Therapy Session.............................................................. 131

                    Preparing for the Transpersonal Context....................................................... .131

                    Individual Session Preparation....................................................................... 132

                    Role of Transpersonal Music Therapist During Session................................. 135

                              Ongoing Session Guidance.................................................................. 135

                              Verbal interaction.................................................................................. 136

                              Dialoguing as a response......................................................................137

                              Other uses of music as response..........................................................138

                              Ending the session................................................................................138

          Research in Transpersonal Music Therapy.............................................................. 140

Bibliography.........................................................................................................................143